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Types of Coffee beans

Arabica beans and Robusta beans are two are majorly used and known coffee beans.

Arabica Beans – Seventy percent of all coffee beans grown are Arabica, which grows best at higher elevations in tropical or sub-tropical climates. Arabica beans (before roasting) tend to have a sweeter, softer taste, with tones of sugar, fruit, and berries. The bean shape is oval.

Robusta Beans – Robusta are harder plants, tolerating lower elevations and less favourable climate and soil conditions. Robusta beans (before roasting) are said to conjure smells of oats or peanuts, with a grainy and nutty fragrance. Robusta beans are used for most instant coffees, and have about twice as much caffeine as Arabica beans.

Geography

The major coffee growing countries of the World are Brazil, Vietnam, Columbia, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Honduras, India, Uganda, Mexico and Guatemala.

The major coffee growing regions in India are Karnataka (Chikmagalur, Kodagu and Hassan), Kerela (Malabar region near Kalpetta), Tamil Nadu (Nilgiris, Yercaud and Kodaikanal), Andhra Pradesh (Araku Valley). Further, coffee is also geographically defined as Single Origin Coffee and Single Estate Coffee. Single Origin coffee comes from a group of farms in a specific geographic region i.e. the coffee beans are sourced from multiple farms from a single geographic location. Single Estate coffee comes from a single farm, usually under a single owner.

Processes

After coffee is harvested, it undergoes a processing method in which the coffee beans are removed from the raw fruit. In India Processing of coffee is done using two methods, Dry processing wherein coffee beans are dried in the sun which is favoured for its flavour producing characteristics and Wet processing wherein coffee beans are fermented and washed, which is the preferred method for improved yields.

Segregation

Grading and Sorting is done by size and weight, growing altitude, aroma, the processing method used to extract the beans from the coffee cherry (fruit) and beans are also reviewed for colour flaws or other imperfections.

Furthermore, the coffee beans are also sold by sorting them as male or female coffee beans, particularly in case of Arabica coffee beans.

 

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